| A | B | C | S | T | U | V | W

Term Definition
A (index)
Abrasion See "Mark, Traffic."
Age Hardening An aging process which results in increased strength and hardness.
Age Softening Spontaneous decrease of strength and hardness that takes place at room temperature in certain strain hardened alloys containing magnesium.
Aging Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy, usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging).
Alclad An aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is metallurgically bonded to either one or both surfaces of an aluminum alloy product, and that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion. For
Alligatoring See "Lamination."
Alloy A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal.
AMS Aerospace Material Specification.
Angularity Conformity to, or deviation from, specified angular dimensions in the cross section of a shape or bar.
Angulation The deliberate departure from a horizontal passline on the entry side of a rolling mill used for one-side bright rolling.
Annealing A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid solution.
Annealing, Partial Thermal treatment (H2X temper nomenclature) given cold worked metal to reduce strength and increase ductility to controlled levels other than annealed temper.
Anodizing Forming a coating on a metal surface produced by electrochemical treatment through anodic oxidation.
Anodizing Sheet See "Sheet, Anodizing."
ANSI American National Standards Institute.
Arbor Break See "Buckle, Arbor."
Arbor Mark See "Mark, Arbor."
Artificial Aging see "Aging."
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
AWS American Welding Society.
B (index)
Back End Condition A condition occurring in the last metal to be extruded. It is a result of the oxidized surface of the billet feeding into the extrusion.
Backup Rolls Non-grooved rolls which stiffen or strengthen work rolls.
Bar A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section which is square or rectangular (excluding plate and flattened wire) with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is a regular hexagon or octagon, and in which at least one perpendicular d
Bar, Cold-Finished Bar brought to final dimensions by cold work to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
Bar, Cold-Finished Extruded cold-finished bar produced from extruded bar.
Bar, Cold-Finished Rolled cold-finished bar produced from rolled bar.
Bar, Extruded Bar brought to final dimensions by hot extruding.
Bar, Rolled Bar brought to final dimensions by hot rolling.
Bar, Saw-Plate Bar brought to final thickness by hot or cold rolling and to final width by sawing.
Base Box-General An agreed-upon unit of area used primarily in packaging applications. One common base box for aluminum is 31,360 square inches, originally composed of 112 rectangular sheets each 14 by 20 inches.
Belled Edge See "Edge, Belled."
Belly A loose center buckle extending to near the edges of a sheet.
Billet A hot worked semi-finished product suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc.
Blank A piece of metal cut or formed to regular or irregular shape for subsequent processing such as by forming, bending or drawing. The piece of sheet stock cut out by blanking die. It will subsequently be drawn into a cup or end shell.
Bleed Out See "Two-Tone."
Blister A raised area on the surface of a extruded product due to subsurface gas expansion. This can occur during extrusion or thermal treatment.
Blister, Bond A raised spot on only one surface of the metal whose origin is between the cladding and core in clad products.
Blister, Coating A blister in the coating of an alclad or a clad product.
Blister, Core A raised spot (one or both sides) on rolled metal.
Block Mark See "Scratch, Tension."
Bloom A semifinished hot rolled product, rectangular or square in cross section, produced on a blooming mill.
Blow Hole A blister that has ruptured and may produce a void. See also "Blister."
Boss A knoblike projection on the main body of a forging or casting.
Bottom Dratt Taper or slope in the bottom of a forged depression to assist the flow of metal toward the sides of the depressed area.
Bow Longitudinal curvature of rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube. Bow is measured after allowing the weight of the extrusion to minimize the deviation. Bow can be caused by a non-uniform extrusion rate across the cross section resulting in one portion of the extrusion being longer than the other or non-uniform contraction during quenching.
Bow, Lateral Deviation from straight of a longitudinal edge.
Bow, Longitudinal Curvature in the plane of sheet or plate in the rolling direction.
Bow, Transverse Curvature across the rolling direction of sheet or plate.
Brazing Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 425C (800F) but lower than those of the metals being joined. This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing), in a furnace (furnace brazing), or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing).
Brazing Rod A rolled, extruded, or casr round filler metal for use in joining by brazing.
Brazing Sheet Sheet of a brazing alloy, or sheet clad with a brazing alloy on one or both sides.
Brazing Wire Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing.
Bright Sheet See "Sheet, (1SBMF), (S2SBF)."
Bristle Mark See "Mark, Bristle."
Broken Die A deviation from the desired cross section due to the absence of a certain portion of the die used to extrude the profile (shape).
Broken Edge See "Edge, Broken."
Broken Matte Finish Non-uniform surface on the inside of packed rolled foil (Bright Spots).
Broken Surface see "Crazing."
Bruise see "Mark, Roll Bruise."
Buckle A distortion of the surface of the metal.
Buckle, Center Undulation (wavy region) in the center of the metal.
Buckle, Edge Undulation (wavy region) along the edge(s) of the metal.
Buckle, Oil Can See "Buckle, Trapped."
Buckle, Trapped Undulation (wavy region) which is smaller sized and often circular in shape.
Buff Streak see"Streak."
Buffing A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of developing a lustrous finish.
Burnish Streak see "Streak, Bumish."
Burr A thin ridge ofroughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, trimming, shearing, blanking or sawing.
C (index)
Camber See "Bow, Lateral."
Chip Mark See "Dent, Repeating."
Chop Metal sheared from a vertical surface of a die forging, which is spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface.
Chucking Lug A lug or boss added to a forging so that "on center" machining and forming may be performed with one set up or checking. This lug is finally machined or cut away.
Cinching see "Scratch, Tension."
Circle A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet or foil.
Clad Sheet See "Sheet, Clad."
Coating Continuous film on the surface of a product.
S (index)
Stretcher Strain See "Line, Luders."
Striation Longitudinal non-uniform coating thickness caused by uneven application of the liquid coating.
Strip This term is not recommended. The term "Sheet" is preferred.
Structural Streak see "Streak, Structural."
Suck-ln A defect caused when one face of a forging is sucked in to fill a projection on the opposite side.
Surface Tear Minute surface cracks on rolled products which can be caused by insufficient ingot scalping.
T (index)
Tail Mark see "Mark, Roll Bruise."
Tear, Speed A series of surface cracks perpendicular to the extruding direction. Speed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities of a section and is caused by localized high temperature.
Telescoping Lateral stacking, primariy in one direction, of wraps in a coil so that the edges of the coil are conical rather than flat Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding is a typical cause. See also "Oscillation."
Temper The condition produced by either mechanical or thermal treatment, or both, and characterized by a certain structure and mechanical properties.
Tensile Strength In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also called "Ultimate Strength."
Tension Scratch See "Scratch, Tension."
Tolerance Allowable deviation from a nominal or specified dimension.
Tool A term usually referring to the dies, mandrels, etc., used in the production of extruded or drawn shapes or tube.
Tooling Pad See "Chucking Lug."
Tooling Plate A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section of thickness 0.250 inch or greater, and with edges either as-cast, sheared or sawed, with internal stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes in tool and jig applicati
Torn Surface A deep longitudinal rub mark resulting from abrasion by extrusion or drawing tools.
Traffic Mark Abrasion which results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contact
Transverse Bow See "Bow, Transverse."
Transverse Direction A direction perpendicular to the direction of working.
Tread Plate sheet or plate having a raised figured pattern on one surface to provide improved traction.
Trim Inclusion Edge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil.
Tube A hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is symmetrical and is round, a regular hexagon or octagon, elliptical, or square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners, and that has uniform wall thickness.
Tube Bloom This term is not recommended. The term "Tube Stock" is preferred.
Tube Stock A semi-finished tube suitable for the production of drawn tube.
Tube, Alclad composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core having on either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.
Tube, Arc-Welded Tube made from sheet or plate butt welded by either gas-tungsten or gas-metal arc-welding method, with or without the use of filler metal.
Tube, Brazed A tube produced by forming and seam-brazing sheet.
Tube, Butt-Welded A welded tube, the seam of which is formed by positioning one edge of the sheet against the other for welding.
Tube, Drawn A tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing through a die. (Note: This product may be produced from either seamless or non-seamless extruded stock or from welded stock.)
Tube, Embossed A tube the outside surface of which has been roll-embossed with a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction.
Tube, Extruded A tube formed by hot extruding. (Note: This product may be either seamless or non-seamless.)
Tube, Finned Tube which has integral fins or projections protruding from its outside surface.
Tube, Fluted A tube of nominally uniform wall thickness having regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.
Tube, Heat-Exchanger A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by huid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators or radiators.
Tube, Helical-Welded A welded tube produced by winding the sheet to form a closed helix and joining the edges of the seam by welding.
Tube, Lap-Welded A welded tube the seam of which is formed by longitudinally lapping the edges of the sheet for welding.
Tube, Lock-Seam A tube produced by forming and mechanically lock-seaming sheet.
Tube, Open-Seam A shape normally produced from sheet of nominally uniform wall thickness and approximately tubular form but having a longitudinal unjointed seam or gap of width not greater than 25 percent of the outside diameter or greatest over-all dimension. Also refer
Tube, Redraw This term is not recommended. The term "Tube Stock" is preferred.
Tube, Seamless A tube that does not contain any line junctures (metallurgicalwelds) resulting from the method of manufacture. (Note: This product may be produced by die and mandrel or by hot piercer processes.)
Tube, Sized A tube that, after extrusion, has been cold drawn a slight amount to minimize ovality.
Tube, Stepped Drawn A drawn tube whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.
Tube, Structural Tube commonly used for structural purposes.
Tube, Welded A tube produced by forming and seam-welding sheet longitudinally.
Tubing This term is not recommended. The term "tube" is preferred.
Tubing-Electrical Metallic A tube having certain standardized length and combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness thinner than that of "Rigid Conduit," commonly designated by nominal electrical trade sizes, for use with compression-type fittings as a protection for elect
Tubular Conductor A tubular product suitable for use as an electric conductor.
Twist (l) For rolled products, a winding departure from flatness. (2) For extrusions, a winding departure from straightness.
Two-Tone A sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due to a difference in the work roll coating.
U (index)
Ultimate Tensile Strength See "Tensile Strength."
V (index)
Vent Mark A small protrusion on a forging resulting from the entrance of metal into a die vent hole.
W (index)
Water Stain see "Corrosion, Water Stain."
Wavy Edge See "Buckle, Edge."
Weave See "Oscillation."
Web (l) A single thickness offoil as it leaves the rolling mill. (2) A connecting element between ribs, flanges, or bosses on shapes and forgings.
Weld Line See "Seam, Extrusion."
Weld, Incomplete The junction line of metal that has passed through a die forming a hollow profile (shape), separated and not completely rejoined. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity.
Welding Joining two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. (In cold
Welding Rod A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in joining by welding.
Welding Wire Wire for use as filler metal in joining by welding.
Wettability Test The degree to which a metal surface may be wet to determine the absence of or the amount of residual rolling or added lubricants or deposits on the surface.
Whip Marks See "Mark, Whip."
Whisker See "Hair, Sliner."
Wire A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is round, hexagonal, or octagonal, and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel face
Wire, Alclad A composite wire product comprised of an aluminum-alloy wire having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corro
Wire, Cold-Heading Wire of quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.
Wire, Drawn Wire brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die.
Wire, Extruded Wire produced by hot extruding.
Wire, Flattened wire having two parallel flat surfaces and rounded edges produced by roll-flattening round wire.
Wire, Flattened and Slit Flattened wire that has been slit to obtain square edges.
Wire, Rivet see "Wire, Cold-Heading."
Work Hardening See"Strain Hardening."
Workability The relative ease with which various alloys may be formed by rolling, extruding, forging, etc.
Wrap, Loose A condition in a coil due to insufficient tension which creates a small void between adjacent wraps.
Wrinkle see "Crease."
Wrought Product A product that has been subjected to mechanical working by such processes as rolling, extruding, forging, etc.

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